The novel Robinson Crusoe by the writer Daniel Defoe was published in 1719 and tells the story of the sailor with the same name. On his third sea voyage, after a shipwreck, the English merchant's son is stranded on a lonely Caribbean island during a trip from Brazil to Africa.
Over the next few years, Robinson learns to use the natural resources of the fertile, uninhabited island, withstands earthquakes, overcomes crises, and survives a disease. He must fight cannibals and, after 23 years of lonely life, finds a companion in the person of the man-eater Friday, whom he saved from certain death. After 28 years on the island, the adventurer finally manages to return to England. The action of the novel takes place in the second half of the 17th century, between 1651 and 1687.
The Three Voyages
Robinson was born in 1632 in York, in northern England. His father was a merchant. As a child, Robinson already dreams of going to sea one day. As a young adult, he runs into an acquaintance who offers to take him on his ship to London. Robinson then decides to leave home against his father's wishes.
The young, inexperienced man is shipwrecked in a heavy storm on his first voyage. Fortunately, he is rescued and is able to reach London. In the English capital he meets a friendly ship captain who offers to take Robinson on a voyage to Guinea. On the voyage, the captain teaches the clever adventurer mathematics and basic navigation skills before the ship is attacked by pirates.
Robinson is made a slave by Moorish pirates. He lives in captivity for two years before escaping at sea. He is rescued by Portuguese sailors and brought to Brazil. Robinson settles in the country for a while and leads a fairly comfortable and wealthy life.
One day Robinson receives an offer to travel to Guinea to engage in the slave trade. He finds the proposal very interesting and agrees to take part in this long overseas voyage. During a hurricane, the ship drifts aimlessly at sea and finally gets stuck on a sandbank not far from land. Fearing that it might break up, the crew flees in a lifeboat, which is overturned by a large wave. The entire crew drowns, except for Robinson, who is washed up on a beach, completely exhausted, on 30 September 1659.
The Solitary Life
Robinson Crusoe soon realizes that the Caribbean island on which he is stranded is uninhabited. He must survive here alone from now on and begins to salvage food, tools, weapons, and ammunition from the wreck. He is afraid of dangerous animals and therefore sleeps in a tree on the first day there. The next day, he explores the island, which is fortunately very fertile. He finds plenty of food and water, and he starts to bring everything he can use from the wreck. He is also able to save the ship's dog.
Over the next few years, the industrious and practical Robinson painstakingly builds two dwellings with a protective wall around them. To do this, he uses the tools he fetched from the ship and the building materials he finds on the island...