Outer characterization

Another character from the novel Mother to Mother by Sindiwe Magona is Mandisa’s mother, Kukwana, or Mama, as Mandisa refers to her throughout the novel. Mama is the oldest of three siblings. Her sister Funiwe, and her mother Makhulu are also involved in the events of the story. Mama is shown to be a conservative woman who is a respected member of her church. She runs a ginger beer business in Guguletu. 

Inner characterization

Mama is very protective of Mandisa, worrying especially about Mandisa getting pregnant. This ultimately strains Mandisa and Mama’s relationship, as Mama goes as far as subjecting Mandisa to physical checks to ensure she is still a virgin, and then sends her away to live with Makhulu.

Mama also shows...

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